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出国留学SAT考试参考读本,配套纯正美语朗读免费下载

内容简介

  《美国历史(英文版)》是美国著名历史学家比尔德为美国中学生写作的一本历史读本,曾在美国学校使用并受到欢迎。《美国历史(英文版)》根据美历史的不同阶段,划分为七个部分,从美洲大陆的发现到世界大战,共29篇。每一篇章归纳出若干知识点,便于学习理解。章节后面附有总结与讨论话题,引导读者进一步探讨与发现。
  全英文文本,配合下载的朗读文件,对国内读者全提升英语更有很大帮助。

作者简介

  继哈佛大学著名历史学家钱宁的《美国学生历史》(英汉双语版)出版问市后,受到众多读者欢迎,不少读者期望能买到英文原版关于美国历史的教材,此书正是为满足这部分读者纯英文阅读的需求。
  这本全英文版的《美国历史》由美国著名历史学家比尔德编写,以西方人的视角,深入浅出地介绍了从殖民地时期到世界大战期间美国历史上的重大事件与文明发展。《美国历史(英文版)》按不同历史时期,分知识点,一一讲述,便于理解记忆。为使读者更好地理解和掌握各章的重点和难点,每章末尾还附有练习题和思考题。文中还配有相应的插图,便于对不同地域和各个时期人物及事件有更直观感受。通过阅读《美国历史(英文版)》,能理清美国历史发展脉络,获得对美国历史全景式认知,从而能更好地了解美国这个社会和文化多元的国家。
  本英文版适合高中以上读者阅读使用,对于备考SAT的学生应该很有帮助。《美国历史(英文版)》提供配套英文朗读下载,在提升阅读水平的同时练习英文听力与口语。对于普通英语学习爱好者,也是一本很好的了解美国历史的学习读本。作者在前言中,对此书的特点作了如下介绍:
  Itisnotuponnegativefeatures,however,thatwerestourcase.Itisratheruponconstructivefeatures.
  First.Wehavewrittenatopical,notanarrative,history.Wehavetriedtosetforththeimportantaspects,problems,andmovementsofeachperiod,bringinginthenarrativeratherbywayofillustration.
  Second.Wehaveemphasizedthosehistoricaltopicswhichhelptoexplainhowournationhascometobewhatitisto-day.
  Third.Wehavedweltfullyuponthesocialandeconomicaspectsofourhistory,especiallyinrelationtothepoliticsofeachperiod.
  Fourth.Wehavetreatedthecausesandresultsofwars,theproblemsoffinancingandsustainingarmedforces,ratherthanmilitarystrategy.Thesearethesubjects,whichbelongtoahistoryforcivilians.Thesearematterswhichcivilianscanunderstand-matterswhichtheymustunderstand,iftheyaretoplaywelltheirpartinwarandpeace.
  Fifth.Byomittingtheperiodofexploration,wehavebeenabletoenlargethetreatmentofourowntime.Wehavegivenspecialattentiontothehistoryofthosecurrentquestionswhichmustformthesubjectmatterofsoundinstructionincitizenship.
  Sixth.WehaveborneinmindthatAmerica,withallheruniquecharacteristics,isapartofageneralcivilization.Accordinglywehavegivendiplomacy,foreignaffairs,worldrelations,andthereciprocalinfluencesofnationstheirappropriateplace.
  Seventh.Wehavedeliberatelyaimedatstandardsofmaturity.
  Thestudyofamerenarrativecallsmainlyfortheuseofthememory.Wehaveaimedtostimulatehabitsofanalysis,comparison,association,reflection,andgeneralization-habitscalculatedtoenlargeaswellasinformthemind.Wehavebeenatgreatpainstomakeourtextclear,simple,anddirect;butwehaveearnestlysoughttostretchtheintellectsofourreaders-toputthemupontheirmettle.Mostofthemwillreceivethelastoftheirformalinstructioninthehighschool.Theworldwillsoonexpectmaturityfromthem.Theirachievementswilldependuponthepossessionofotherpowersthanmemoryalone.Theeffectivenessoftheircitizenshipinourrepublicwillbemeasuredbytheexcellenceoftheirjudgmentaswellasthefullnessoftheirinformation.

精彩书评

  查尔斯·A·比尔德,美国著名历史学家,去世于1948年。他写作的《美国文明的兴起》一书,被商务印书馆翻译出版并选入“汉译名著”系列。
  CharlesAustinBeard(November27,1874-September1,1948)wasanAmericanhistorian.Hepublishedhundredsofmonographs,textbooksandinterpretivestudiesinbothhistoryandpoliticalscience.Hisworksincludedradicalre-evaluationoftheFoundingFathersoftheUnitedStates,whomhebelievedweremoremotivatedbyeconomicsthanbyphilosophicalprinciples.
  MaryRitterBeard(August5,1876-August14,1958)wasaninfluentialAmericanhistorianand
  archivist,whoplayedanimportantroleinthewomen'ssuffragemovementandwasalifelongadvocateforsocialjusticethrougheducationalandactivistrolesinboththelaborandwoman'srightsmovements.Shewroteseveralbooksonwomen'sroleinhistoryincludingOnUnderstandingWomen(1931),AmericaThroughWomen'sEyes(1933)andWomanAsForceInHistory:AStudyinTraditionsandRealities(1946).Inaddition,shecollaboratedwithherhusband,eminenthistorianCharlesAustinBeardonseveraldistinguishedworks,mostnotablyTheRiseofAmericanCivilization(1927).

目录

PARTITHECOLONIALPERIOD
1THEGREATMIGRATIONTOAMERICA
TheAgenciesofAmericanColonization
TheColonialPeoples
TheProcessofColonization
2COLONIALAGRICULTURE,INDUSTRY,ANDCOMMERCE
TheLandandtheWestwardMovement
IndustrialandCommercialDevelopment
3SOCIALANDPOLITICALPROGRESS
TheLeadershipoftheChurches
SchoolsandColleges
TheColonialPress
TheEvolutioninPoliticalInstitutions
4THEDEVELOPMENTOFCOLONIALNATIONALISM
RelationswiththeIndiansandtheFrench
TheEffectsofWarfareontheColonies
ColonialRelationswiththeBritishGovernment
SummaryoftheColonialPeriod
PARTIICONFLICTANDINDEPENDENCE
5THENEWCOURSEINBRITISHIMPERIALPOLICY
GeorgeIIIandHisSystem
GeorgeIIIsMinistersandTheirColonialPolicies
ColonialResistanceForcesRepeal
ResumptionofBritishRevenueandCommercialPolicies
RenewedResistanceinAmerica
RetaliationbytheBritishGovernment
FromReformtoRevolutioninAmerica
6THEAMERICANREVOLUTION
ResistanceandRetaliation
AmericanIndependence
TheEstablishmentofGovernmentandtheNewAllegiance
MilitaryAffairs
TheFinancesoftheRevolution
TheDiplomacyoftheRevolution
PeaceatLast
SummaryoftheRevolutionaryPeriod
PARTIIIFOUNDATIONSOFTHEUNIONANDNATIONALPOLITICS
7THEFORMATIONOFTHECONSTITUTION
ThePromiseandtheDifficultiesofAmerica
TheCallingofaConstitutionalConvention
TheFramingoftheConstitution
TheStruggleoverRatification
8THECLASHOFPOLITICALPARTIES115
TheMenandMeasuresoftheNewGovernment
TheRiseofPoliticalParties
ForeignInfluencesandDomesticPolitics
9THEJEFFERSONIANREPUBLICANSINPOWER132
RepublicanPrinciplesandPolicies
TheRepublicansandtheGreatWest
TheRepublicanWarforCommercialIndependence
TheRepublicansNationalized
TheNationalDecisionsofChiefJusticeMarshall
SummaryoftheUnionandNationalPolitics
PARTIVTHEWESTANDJACKSONIANDEMOCRACY
1THEFARMERSBEYONDTHEAPPALACHIANS155
PreparationforWesternSettlement
TheWesternMigrationandNewStates
TheSpiritoftheFrontier
TheWestandtheEastMeet
11JACKSONIANDEMOCRACY17
TheDemocraticMovementintheEast
TheNewDemocracyEnterstheArena
TheNewDemocracyatWashington
TheRiseoftheWhigs
TheInteractionofAmericanandEuropeanOpinion
12THEMIDDLEBORDERANDTHEGREATWEST194
TheAdvanceoftheMiddleBorder
OntothePacific-TexasandtheMexicanWar
ThePacificCoastandUtah
SummaryofWesternDevelopmentandNationalPolitics
PARTVSECTIONALCONFLICTANDRECONSTRUCTION
13THERISEOFTHEINDUSTRIALSYSTEM211
TheIndustrialRevolution
TheIndustrialRevolutionandNationalPolitics
14THEPLANTINGSYSTEMANDNATIONALPOLITICS226
Slavery-NorthandSouth
SlaveryinNationalPolitics
TheDriftofEventstowardtheIrrepressibleConflict
15THECIVILWARANDRECONSTRUCTION245
TheSouthernConfederacy
TheWarMeasuresoftheFederalGovernment
TheResultsoftheCivilWar
ReconstructionintheSouth
SummaryoftheSectionalConflict
PARTVINATIONALGROWTHANDWORLDPOLITICS
16THEPOLITICALANDECONOMICEVOLUTIONOFTHESOUTH27
TheSouthattheCloseoftheWar
TheRestorationofWhiteSupremacy
TheEconomicAdvanceoftheSouth
17BUSINESSENTERPRISEANDTHEREPUBLICANPARTY285
RailwaysandIndustry
TheSupremacyoftheRepublicanParty(1861-85)
TheGrowthofOppositiontoRepublicanRule
18THEDEVELOPMENTOFTHEGREATWEST3
TheRailwaysAsTrailBlazers
TheEvolutionofGrazingandAgriculture
MiningandManufacturingintheWest
TheAdmissionofNewStates
TheInfluenceoftheFarWestonNationalLife
19DOMESTICISSUESBEFORETHECOUNTRY(1865-1897)322
TheCurrencyQuestion
TheProtectiveTariffandTaxation
TheRailwaysandTrusts
TheMinorPartiesandUnrest
TheSoundMoneyBattleof1896
RepublicanMeasuresandResults
2AMERICAAWORLDPOWER(1865-19)34
AmericanForeignRelations(1865-98)
CubaandtheSpanishWar
AmericanPoliciesinthePhilippinesandtheOrient
SummaryofNationalGrowthandWorldPolitics
PARTVIIPROGRESSIVEDEMOCRACYANDTHEWORLDWAR
21THEEVOLUTIONOFREPUBLICANPOLICIES(19-1913)362
ForeignAffairs
ColonialAdministration
TheRooseveltDomesticPolicies
LegislativeandExecutiveActivities
TheAdministrationofPresidentTaft
ProgressiveInsurgencyandtheElectionof1912
22THESPIRITOFREFORMINAMERICA382
AnAgeofCriticism
PoliticalReforms
MeasuresofEconomicReform
23THENEWPOLITICALDEMOCRACY395
TheRiseoftheWomanMovement
TheNationalStruggleforWomanSuffrage
24INDUSTRIALDEMOCRACY4
CooperationbetweenEmployersandEmployees
TheRiseandGrowthofOrganizedLabor
TheWiderRelationsofOrganizedLabor
ImmigrationandAmericanization
25PRESIDENTWILSONANDTHEWORLDWAR418
DomesticLegislation
ColonialandForeignPolicies
TheUnitedStatesandtheEuropeanWar
TheUnitedStatesatWar
TheSettlementatParis
SummaryofDemocracyandtheWorldWar

精彩书摘

  CHAPTER1 THEGREATMIGRATIONTOAMERICA
  ThetideofmigrationthatsetintowardtheshoresofNorthAmericaduringtheearlyyearsoftheseventeenthcenturywasbutonephaseintherestlessandeternalmovementofmankinduponthesurfaceoftheearth.TheancientGreeksflungouttheircoloniesineverydirection,westwardasfarasGaul,acrosstheMediterranean,andeastwardintoAsiaMinor,perhapstotheveryconfinesofIndia.TheRomans,supportedbytheirarmiesandtheirgovernment,spreadtheirdominionbeyondthenarrowlandsofItalyuntilitstretchedfromtheheatherofScotlandtothesandsofArabia.TheTeutonictribes,fromtheirhomebeyondtheDanubeandtheRhine,pouredintotheempireoftheC?sarsandmadethebeginningsofmodernEurope.OfthisgreatsweepofracesandempiresthesettlementofAmericawasmerelyapart.Anditwas,moreover,onlyoneaspectoftheexpansionwhichfinallycarriedthepeoples,theinstitutions,andthetradeofEuropetotheveryendsoftheearth.
  Inonevitalpoint,itmustbenoted,Americancolonizationdifferedfromthatoftheancients.TheGreeksusuallycarriedwiththemaffectionforthegovernmenttheyleftbehindandsacredfirefromthealtaroftheparentcity;butthousandsoftheimmigrantswhocametoAmericadislikedthestateanddisownedthechurchofthemothercountry.Theyestablishedcompactsofgovernmentforthemselvesandsetupaltarsoftheirown.Theysoughtnotonlynewsoiltotillbutalsopoliticalandreligiouslibertyforthemselvesandtheirchildren.
  TheAgenciesofAmericanColonization
  ItwasnolightmatterfortheEnglishtocrossthreethousandmilesofwaterandfoundhomesintheAmericanwildernessattheopeningoftheseventeenthcentury.Ships,tools,andsuppliescalledforhugeoutlaysofmoney.Storeshadtobefurnishedinquantitiessufficienttosustainthelifeofthesettlersuntiltheycouldgatherharvestsoftheirown.Artisansandlaborersofskillandindustryhadtobeinducedtoriskthehazardsofthenewworld.Soldierswererequiredfordefenseandmarinersfortheexplorationofinlandwaters.Leadersofgoodjudgment,adeptinmanagingmen,hadtobediscovered.Altogethersuchanenterprisedemandedcapitallargerthantheordinarymerchantorgentlemancouldamassandinvolvedrisksmoreimminentthanhedaredtoassume.Thoughinlaterdays,afterinitialtestshadbeenmade,wealthyproprietorswereabletoestablishcoloniesontheirownaccount,itwasthecorporationthatfurnishedthecapitalandleadershipinthebeginning.
  TheTradingCompany.-Englishpioneersinexplorationfoundaninstrumentforcolonizationincompaniesofmerchantadventurers,whichhadlongbeenemployedincarryingoncommercewithforeigncountries.Suchacorporationwascomposedofmanypersonsofdifferentranksofsociety-noblemen,merchants,andgentlemen-whobandedtogetherforaparticularundertaking,eachcontributingasumofmoneyandsharingintheprofitsoftheventure.Itwasorganizedunderroyalauthority;itreceiveditscharter,itsgrantofland,anditstradingprivilegesfromthekingandcarriedonitsoperationsunderhissupervisionandcontrol.Thecharternamedallthepersonsoriginallyincludedinthecorporationandgavethemcertainpowersinthemanagementofitsaffairs,includingtherighttoadmitnewmembers.Thecompanywasinfactalittlegovernmentsetupbytheking.WhenthemembersofthecorporationremainedinEngland,asinthecaseoftheVirginiaCompany,theyoperatedthroughagentssenttothecolony.WhentheycameovertheseasthemselvesandsettledinAmerica,asinthecaseofMassachusetts,theybecamethedirectgovernmentofthecountrytheypossessed.Thestockholdersinthatinstancebecamethevotersandthegovernor,thechiefmagistrate.
  FourofthethirteencoloniesinAmericaowedtheiroriginstothetradingcorporation.ItwastheLondonCompany,createdbyKingJamesI,in1606,thatlaidduringthefollowingyearthefoundationsofVirginiaatJamestown.ItwasundertheauspicesoftheirWestIndiaCompany,charteredin1621,thattheDutchplantedthesettlementsoftheNewNetherlandinthevalleyoftheHudson.ThefoundersofMassachusettswerePuritanleadersandmenofaffairswhomKingCharlesIincorporatedin1629underthetitle:"ThegovernorandcompanyoftheMassachusettsBayinNewEngland."Inthiscasethelawdidbutincorporateagroupdrawntogetherbyreligiousties."Wemustbeknittogetherasoneman,"wroteJohnWinthrop,thefirstPuritangovernorinAmerica.Fartothesouth,onthebanksoftheDelawareRiver,aSwedishcommercialcompanyin1638madethebeginningsofasettlement,christenedNewSweden;itwasdestinedtopassundertheruleoftheDutch,andfinallyundertheruleofWilliamPennastheproprietarycolonyofDelaware.
  Inacertainsense,Georgiamaybeincludedamongthe"companycolonies."Itwas,however,originallyconceivedbythemovingspirit,JamesOglethorpe,asanasylumforpoormen,especiallythoseimprisonedfordebt.Torealizethishumanepurpose,hesecuredfromKingGeorgeII,in1732,aroyalcharterunitingseveralgentlemen,includinghimself,into"onebodypoliticandcorporate,"knownasthe"TrusteesforestablishingthecolonyofGeorgiainAmerica."Inthestructureoftheirorganizationandtheirmethodsofgovernment,thetrusteesdidnotdiffermateriallyfromtheregularcompaniescreatedfortradeandcolonization.Thoughtheirpurposeswerebenevolent,theirtransactionshadtobeundertheformsoflawandaccordingtotherulesofbusiness.
  ……

前言/序言

  Asthingsnowstand,thecourseofinstructioninAmericanhistoryinourpublicschoolsembracesthreedistincttreatmentsofthesubject.Threeseparatebooksareused.First,thereistheprimarybook,whichisusuallyaverycondensednarrativewithemphasisonbiographiesandanecdotes.
  Second,thereistheadvancedtextfortheseventhoreighthgrade,generallyspeaking,anexpansionoftheelementarybookbytheadditionoffortyorfiftythousandwords.Finally,thereisthehighschoolmanual.This,too,ordinarilyfollowsthebeatenpath,givingfulleraccountsofthesameeventsandcharacters.Toputitbluntly,wedonotassumethatourchildrenobtainpermanentpossessionsfromtheirstudyofhistoryinthelowergrades.Ifmathematiciansfollowedthesamemethod,highschooltextsonalgebraandgeometrywouldincludethemultiplicationtableandfractions.
  Thereis,ofcourse,areadyanswertothecriticismadvancedabove.Itisthatteachershavelearnedfrombitterexperiencehowlittlehistorytheirpupilsretainastheypassalongtheregularroute.Noteacherofhistorywilldenythis.Stillitisastandingchallengetoexistingmethodsofhistoricalinstruction.Ifthestudyofhistorycannotbemadetrulyprogressivelikethestudyofmathematics,science,andlanguages,thenthehistoriansassumeagraveresponsibilityinaddingtheirsubjecttothealreadyoverloadedcurriculum.Ifthesuccessivehistoricaltextsareonlyenlargededitionsofthefirsttext-morefacts,moredates,morewords-thenhistorydeservesmostofthesharpcriticismwhichitisreceivingfromteachersofscience,civics,andeconomics.
  InthisconditionofaffairswefindourjustificationforofferinganewhighschooltextinAmericanhistory.Ourfirstcontributionisoneofomission.Thetime-honoredstoriesofexplorationandthebiographiesofheroesareleftout.Wefranklyholdthat,ifpupilsknowlittleornothingaboutColumbus,Cortes,Magellan,orCaptainJohnSmithbythetimetheyreachthehighschool,itisuselesstotellthesamestoriesforperhapsthefourthtime.Itisworsethanuseless.Itisanoffenseagainsttheteachersofthosesubjectsthataredemonstratedtobeprogressiveincharacter.
  Inthenextplacewehaveomittedalldescriptionsofbattles.Ourreasonsforthisaresimple.Thestrategyofacampaignorofasinglebattleisahighlytechnical,andusuallyahighlycontroversial,matteraboutwhichexpertsdifferwidely.Inthefieldofmilitaryandnavaloperationsmostwritersandteachersofhistoryaremerenovices.TodisposeofGettysburgortheWildernessintenlinesortenpagesisequallyabsurdtotheseriousstudentofmilitaryaffairs.AnyonewhocomparestheordinarytextbookaccountofasingleCivilWarcampaignwiththeaccountgivenbyRopes,forinstance,willaskfornofurthercomment.Noyouthcalledupontoserveourcountryinarmswouldthinkofturningtoahighschoolmanualforinformationabouttheartofwarfare.Thedramaticsceneorepisode,sousefulinarousingtheinterestoftheimmaturepupil,seemsoutofplaceinabookthatdeliberatelyappealstoboysandgirlsontheverythresholdoflife'sseriousresponsibilities.
  Itisnotuponnegativefeatures,however,thatwerestourcase.Itisratheruponconstructivefeatures.
  First.Wehavewrittenatopical,notanarrative,history.Wehavetriedtosetforththeimportantaspects,problems,andmovementsofeachperiod,bringinginthenarrativeratherbywayofillustration.
  Second.Wehaveemphasizedthosehistoricaltopicswhichhelptoexplainhowournationhascometobewhatitisto-day.
  Third.Wehavedweltfullyuponthesocialandeconomicaspectsofourhistory,especiallyinrelationtothepoliticsofeachperiod.
  Fourth.Wehavetreatedthecausesandresultsofwars,theproblemsoffinancingandsustainingarmedforces,ratherthanmilitarystrategy.Thesearethesubjectswhichbelongtoahistoryforcivilians.Thesearematterswhichcivilianscanunderstand-matterswhichtheymustunderstand,iftheyaretoplaywelltheirpartinwarandpeace.
  Fifth.Byomittingtheperiodofexploration,wehavebeenabletoenlargethetreatmentofourowntime.Wehavegivenspecialattentiontothehistoryofthosecurrentquestionswhichmustformthesubjectmatterofsoundinstructionincitizenship.
  Sixth.WehaveborneinmindthatAmerica,withallheruniquecharacteristics,isapartofageneralcivilization.Accordinglywehavegivendiplomacy,foreignaffairs,worldrelations,andthereciprocalinfluencesofnationstheirappropriateplace.
  Seventh.Wehavedeliberatelyaimedatstandardsofmaturity.Thestudyofamerenarrativecallsmainlyfortheuseofthememory.Wehaveaimedtostimulatehabitsofanalysis,comparison,association,reflection,andgeneralization-habitscalculatedtoenlargeaswellasinformthemind.
  Wehavebeenatgreatpainstomakeourtextclear,simple,anddirect;butwehaveearnestlysoughttostretchtheintellectsofourreaders-toputthemupontheirmettle.Mostofthemwillreceivethelastoftheirformalinstructioninthehighschool.Theworldwillsoonexpectmaturityfromthem.Theirachievementswilldependuponthepossessionofotherpowersthanmemoryalone.Theeffectivenessoftheircitizenshipinourrepublicwillbemeasuredbytheexcellenceoftheirjudgmentaswellasthefullnessoftheirinformation.
  C.A.B.
  M.R.B.
  NEWYORKCITY

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